Printed Circuit Board 101

Our world now is a place where technology is necessary. Electronic devices can be seen almost anywhere, assisting a person in one way or another. People holding a cellular phone is a common sight; it can be one of the older generation models or the newest releases. Computers are also used for almost any task. These devices all work properly with the help of microchips and other components inside them. For them all to work together, they are connected using a printed circuit board.

A printed circuit board is a board used to connect the components of an electronic device to make it work. These boards are made from a non-conductive material and are etched with a metal pattern. The metal used is usually copper and is set in a pattern so that all the components that will be installed in it will be connected to complete an electric circuit.


You can see how the patterns work together on a circuit board by looking at the electronic wiring of a house. All of the outlets and switches are connected together by wires and with these switches, they can either make a light bulb work or any electronic device that you connect to it. The wires would then be hidden inside the walls so that they can be isolated and that no one will accidentally touch them. The circuit board patters are similar to a house’s electrical wiring, but instead of wires, a circuit board would use the metal that is etched onto it. This helps in keeping the connections organized and will prevent any disruption with the circuits.

The printed circuit board was first conceived during the 1850’s. Electronic components during that period were attached to wooden boards and then they would be connected underneath with the use of metal rods. The rods were then replaced with wires that were screwed to the bottom of the boards. The boards were eventually reinforced and wood was no longer used. The use of the circuit board made it possible to create devices which are safer and more compact.

Paul Eisler of the United Kingdom had a patent of etching an electronic circuit pattern from a copper foil to a glass base in 1943. This method of organizing electronic components was widely used when transistors were being used as well, and this made it possible to create better electronic devices.

During the development of the circuit board, there are a few methods of connecting the components; the Through-Hole Technology and the Surface-Mount Technology were the most common methods.

Through-Mount Technology would have holes drilled through the board where an electronic component can be placed. The component would have a lead part that will go through the hole and it will then be soldered into place either by hand or by machine. Surface-Mount Technology is simply about “stamping” the electronic component onto the circuit board. The board itself is prepared before hand for this kind of method. Surface-Mount Technology is commonly used nowadays because it can shorten the production time of electronic gadgets.

Designers have to consider the size of the electronic device and the number of components that will be attached to it during the designing phase of a printed circuit board. Planning the pathways in which the electricity will go through and the patterns that the copper foils will be etched onto the board is done here as well. The designer must ensure that all the pathways with the pattern will connect to each component and that none will be left behind or overlap with another. With this, some designs are made to allow the circuit board to be compressed even further, allowing the creation of small electronic gadgets to be possible.

Long Island real estate: Queens, New York

Long Island is a section of prime real estate in the state of New York in the United States. It is where two of the most well-known and historic New York City boroughs are located – Queens and Brooklyn.

propertiesQueens, New York, Long Island real estate properties are some of the most popular and expensive real estate listings in the world. Its popularity was born in large part by it being a favorite location of internationally renowned Hollywood movies. It is also referenced in many varied works of literature about New York City. Due to Queens’ status as a muse of the arts, it has gained international recognition and prominence which resulted in skyrocketing real estate prices in the area.

Queens, New York dates back to 1683 when it was first established. It got its name from Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza who was, at the time it was founded, the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Ever since it became a borough of New York City in the late 1800s, Queens, New York has kept a steady pace of progress and expansion. It has the distinction of being the home of a diverse group of multi-national migrant communities. The diversity of ethnicities found in Queens makes it a melting pot of cultures which helped create Queens’ colorful reputation as a county.

As of 2014, the population of Queens was at 2,321,580 residents. This Long Island real estate is a mix of Jewish, Asian, Latino, African-American, European, Mexican, Chinese communities. They all inhabit this stretch of Long Island. It is because of this that Queens has distinguished itself as the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.

homeIn terms of population density, Queens is the 2nd most populous county in New York State after Brooklyn. And if it were considered a city it would be the 4th most populous city in the United States after Los Angeles, Chicago and Brooklyn. This amalgamation of peoples and cultures is what makes Queens an exciting, vibrant and flourishing piece of Long Island real estate.

Apart from the people who inhabit Queens, the melting pot character of the borough is evident in the architectural styles of the housing stock available in the area. In western and central Queens for example, there is a preference for high-rise apartment buildings. While in the eastern side of the borough, where urban planning leans towards suburban design, free standing single family homes are a more common site. Long Island real estate, therefore, is as diverse as the communities of Queens, New York.

Some of the more interesting Queens neighborhoods to visit are:

Springfield Garden or Brookville is a community located nearest the John F. Kennedy airport. It is one of the busiest business areas and the most populous residential areas of Queens. It is a working-class neighborhood where Jamaicans, Haitians, Guyanese and African-Americans have built families and communities in.

Jamaica Estates on the other hand is more upscale with a population consisting mostly of Modern Orthodox Jewish American and South Asian residents. This particular section of Long Island caters more to the upper-middle class and the housing stock clearly says wealthy neighborhood.

Bayside is similar to Jamaica estates. If the preference is for large and expensive free standing homes then go through, this is the Long Island real estate location to visit and consider. Bayside has the most expensive real estate listings in all of the United States. Oddly enough, Bayside also has a reputation for being the home of organized crime syndicates after a series of headlines put it in the map as a hub for mobster activity.

Springfield Garden, Bayside and Jamaica Estates are just a few of the many interesting neighborhoods in Queens, New York. And already in them is a trace of the story of diversity that this New York borough is known for.